Strawberries – cultivation, properties, 11 recipes for tasty dishes
Taste is not the only advantage of strawberries. They have many valuable health properties that improve health and well-being. Regular consumption reduces the risk of serious diseases. They also work well in the form of cosmetics, applied to the skin. What are the varieties of strawberries, where to buy seedlings and how to grow them? What properties do strawberries have? How to use these fruits in the kitchen?
1. Characteristics of strawberries
In Chile people found much larger strawberries and gave several seedlings to the King of France Louis XIV. They were planted in the garden, and one of the botanists after the crossing of the Chilean variety (Fragaria chiloensis) with the virgin (Fragaria virginiana) got strawberries.
Currently, strawberries are grown in all temperate and subtropical countries. The largest fruit producer is the United States, Spain, Russia and Turkey. Fruits contain 6-9% carbohydrates and 80% water, many valuable minerals and vitamins. Strawberries can be eaten raw and processed.
2. Strawberry varieties
There are many types of strawberries , which differ in flowering time, resistance to external factors, taste and appearance, one of the most popular varieties are:
- Honeoye – very early frost-resistant strawberries,
- Kent – medium early, resistant to gray mold,
- Kimberly – early, large fruit,
- Elsanta – firm fruit, will not survive harsh winters,
- Elkat – medium early, frost resistant and easy to grow,
- Polka – medium late drought resistant and great for preserves,
- Senga Sengana – medium late frost resistant,
- Florence – very late, large fruit resistant to gray mold, powdery mildew and frost.
3. Where to buy strawberry plants?
Strawberry seedlings are worth buying in specialized nurseries, which are certified with a variety and high quality confirmation. They should be inspected carefully and made sure that they are not sick or occupied by pests . Plants should not be over-dried, in which case they should be held for about two hours in water before they are placed in the ground.
4. How to plant strawberries?
The best time to start planting strawberries is the beginning of July, because next year there will be a lot of fruit. Seedlings placed in the ground at the turn of April and May will have smaller yields, and their largest amount will be only in two or three years.
The end of August and the first week of September is the last moment for this type of work, because the plants must root before the onset of winter. Heavy rainfall will also help.
The distance between strawberries should depend on their variety. It is recognized that beginners should plant them every 20 centimeters, and there must be a 70 centimeter gap between rows.
Many people prefer a belt-row system , in which the distance between the rows is 60 centimeters, and between the belts – 90. Seedlings are best placed in the ground every 20 centimeters.
Another method is planting on a field 40 cm away from the other. Plants are best planted at 20-30 cm intervals. The soil should be dug at least a week earlier, preferably when it is sandy loam, rich in humus.
Rows are best marked precisely with cords. Cuttings should be free of tendrils and old leaves. It is best to bury them so deep that a heart leaf is above the surface .
We put all the roots in the hole, they should not be rolled up, it is better to shorten them with pruning shears. It is worth paying special attention to the depth of planting . Placing the plant too low will lead to rotting, while too shallow to dry the roots.
Do not forget to mulch with sawdust or bark , because this method protects the ground against water loss. It is also recommended to shade with a thin layer of straw , which we remove after five days from planting. After a few days without rainfall, it is necessary to water the cuttings .
5. Growing strawberries
Fruits should be picked every day because they tend to rot. In summer, sprouts grow out of plants, they should be cut just at the base of the leaves. It is also necessary to protect the seedlings from winter with straw.
The following year, it is worth using multi-component fertilizer in the spring , preferably in liquid form. Also, do not forget to regularly get rid of weeds with a hoe. This action requires attention as it may damage the roots.
Watering is most important after planting, during fruiting, at the end and beginning of summer. Access to water has an impact on fruit size and yield. It’s best to use rainwater or tap water for this.
Strawberries should be watered without soaking the leaves, as this promotes the development of diseases and mold. Strawberries in a tunnel or greenhouse will ripen faster by about two weeks. Open or remove curtains during flowering, because insects must have access to flowers.
6. Health properties of strawberries
Strawberries are a rich source of vitamin C , they have more than grapefruit or lemon. Its deficiency threatens with depression, weakness, muscle and joint pain and even osteoporosis.
Strawberries also contain vitamins A, E and vitamins from group B). They are also a valuable source of iron, have numerous health properties and nutritional values, and additionally contain few calories.
Strawberries are allowed on a slimming diet, because in 100 grams of fruit is only 32 kcal. In addition, the fruit has a cleansing and diuretic effect . They regulate kidney function and facilitate getting rid of toxins from the body.
Due to the content of pectins, they positively affect the digestive process and metabolism.
They also stimulate the liver and gallbladder. They also help in getting rid of extra kilos.
Strawberries have anti-cancer properties due to the high content of vitamin C and ellagic acid . These substances support the immune system and reduce the impact of carcinogens that occur naturally, synthetically and from thermally processed products.
Researchers from Spain and Italy have found that a large amount of polyphenols can inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer. In contrast, fiber prevents the development of colorectal cancer.
Strawberries have flavonoids such as anthocyanins, catechins, quercetin and kemferol. Thanks to this, they have an effect on reducing cholesterol , improve the function of endothelium of blood vessels and reduce the risk of venous thrombosis.
For this reason, strawberries inhibit cardiovascular disease. Researchers from the US and UK have shown that three servings of strawberries a week reduce the risk of women having a heart attack by one-third.
The glycemic index of strawberries is 40, these fruits contain fructose , which is metabolized without insulin. People with diabetes can consume them without fear.
What’s more, scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Science in San Diego have shown that strawberry physetins reduce complications associated with type 1 diabetes, i.e. diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy or neuropathy, which is manifested by numbness in the limbs.
Strawberries can cause allergies and can therefore be given to children only after the age of 10 months. If the reaction is bad, they should be discontinued and given again in the second year of life. Allergies may also occur in adults who have not experienced it before.
It is worth initially eating fruit in small portions, paying attention to your well-being. Strawberries are unlikely to serve people who are allergic to salicylates.
They can also cause problems for people with irritable bowel syndrome. Small fruit stones may be responsible for severe and violent diarrhea.
6.6. Properties of strawberry leaves
Strawberry leaves contain tannins, mineral salts, organic acids and small amounts of essential oil. The infusion of leaves has healing properties for diarrhea, colitis, vaginal bleeding and kidney stones. Dried and grated leaves can be used as compresses for burned areas.
7. The use of strawberries in cosmetics
The health properties of strawberries are not everything, they also have a beneficial effect on beauty. They are often used in the production of cosmetics due to their nutritional, astringent, anti-wrinkle, brightening and bactericidal properties.
In addition, they protect the skin against harmful solar radiation , help to get rid of unsightly discoloration. If we have problems such as skin peeling and skin dryness, it will be a good idea to use cosmetics with strawberries .
Preparing a homemade strawberry mask is very easy. Mash about 10 dag strawberries and add 15 ml soybean oil. Put the prepared pulp on your face for 20 minutes.
If, however, we want to get rid of the signs of aging and brighten the skin, we can prepare a mask based on strawberries (10 dag), lemon juice (about 2.5 tablespoons) and natural yogurt (15 g). After crushing and mixing thoroughly, apply the mixture to the face for 10 minutes.
Strawberries also whiten teeth and inhibit plaque buildup. To do this, rub the teeth with a cut strawberry and leave for half an hour.
8. How do Polish strawberries differ from foreign ones?
Many producers ensure that imported strawberries grew in Polish fields. First of all, do not trust the word, but pay attention to the color of the fruit. Polish ones are slightly brighter, but more red. Foreign most often take on an intense burgundy color.
What’s more, strawberries from Poland are smaller, harder and firmer than those imported from Spain, Greece or Hungary. The price can also say a lot, Polish fruit is more expensive due to difficult weather conditions.
9. How to prepare strawberries for consumption?
Strawberries should not be in the water for a long time, so they should only be rinsed under a light stream. Finally, remove the peduncles. Strawberries are a very delicate fruit , which is why they should not be stored for too long, it is best to eat them in a short time.
Strawberries can be served in various ways. It all depends on the individual needs and taste tastes of the person who prepares them. Of course, they taste best raw without any additions. In this form they are also the least caloric.
They can be the main ingredient in a cocktail, dessert with natural yogurt. Then you should remember that there will be much more calories in strawberries, due to the added ingredients.
It should also be remembered that strawberries are quite strong allergens – they provoke the secretion of histamine in the body. After eating them, urticaria may appear, which is a sign that an allergic reaction has occurred and should not be consumed.
10. 11 recipes for dishes with strawberries
Strawberries taste great raw, but you can prepare many tasty dishes from them. Most often they can be found in desserts, but it is also possible to make great main dishes, breakfast or dinner with them.
There are plenty of ideas for using strawberries. If you love strawberries, try cooking in the kitchen . Daily consumption of strawberries will definitely have a positive effect on health and well-being.
10.1. Brownie cupcakes with strawberries
Ingredients for about 18 cupcakes:
- 200 g butter,
- 100 g dark chocolate,
- 100 g dessert chocolate,
- 3 eggs
- 200 g sugar,
- 135 g flour,
- half a teaspoon of baking powder,
- a glass of strawberries.
Wash strawberries, remove stalks and cut into slices. Divide the butter into smaller parts and put in a saucepan, after a while pour in chocolate cubes and keep on low heat until the ingredients dissolve. We remember to mix the mass regularly.
Set the pot aside. In a separate bowl, we combine eggs with sugar using a mixer. We add melted chocolate with butter and mix for a while. We add flour mixed with baking powder and mix until a smooth mass is obtained.
We prepare 18 disposable cupcakes, pour the dough into them (about 3 tablespoons per 1 mold) and add strawberries. Put in the oven preheated to 180 degrees and bake for about 30 minutes.
10.2. Stuffciatella cheesecake with strawberries
Ingredients for 12 servings:
- 80 g round biscuits,
- 500 g mascarpone cheese,
- 200 ml 30 or 36% cream,
- 100 g sugar,
- 200 ml milk,
- 1.5 tablespoons of food gelatin,
- 200 g natural yogurt,
- 100 g dessert chocolate,
- 400 g strawberries,
- optional 4 tablespoons amaretto liqueur.
Line a cake tin with a diameter of 24 centimeters with baking paper. Place the sponge cake on the bottom and optionally sprinkle it with liqueur.
Put cold mascarpone cheese into a bowl, pour chilled cream and fondant with sugar. Beat the whole with a mixer for about two minutes.
In a pot, bring the milk to a boil, remove from heat and add gelatin. Mix until completely dissolved. Then gradually add yogurt, stirring constantly.
The resulting mass is poured into a bowl of mascarpone and combined using a mixer. We add chopped chocolate and chopped strawberries. We remember to leave a little chocolate and fruit for decoration.
Mix the mass gently with a spoon and put it evenly on the biscuits previously arranged. Decorate the cake as desired and put in the fridge for a few hours.
10.3. Salad with strawberries
Ingredients for two portions:
- 2 handfuls of spinach,
- 300 g strawberries,
- 220 g halloumi cheese,
- 6 tablespoons of almond flakes,
- 2 cm piece of ginger,
- 1 tablespoon honey
- 2 tablespoons of olive oil,
- 1 tablespoon lemon juice.
Wash, dry spinach, cut into smaller pieces and place on a platter. Rinse strawberries under running water, tear off peduncles and cut into halves. We add them to spinach.
Cut the cheese into slices. We warm up the grill pan, pour it with olive oil and arrange halloumi. We keep it on fire for about two minutes on medium heat. Then turn it over.
After frying, add it to the salad. In a bowl we combine grated ginger, honey, olive oil, lemon juice, a little salt and pepper. Pour the salad over the sauce and sprinkle with almond flakes, you can roast them in a dry pan beforehand.
10.4. Fluffy cake with strawberries
Ingredients for 12 servings:
- 200 g butter,
- 4 eggs,
- 200 g wheat flour,
- 1 teaspoon of baking powder,
- 150 g icing sugar,
- 400 g strawberries.
Divide the butter into smaller pieces and leave at room temperature. Eggs are also removed from the fridge beforehand or put in warm water. After about an hour, whisk the butter to a fluffy mass, gradually add yolks and powdered sugar to it.
Mix thoroughly and long enough with a mixer. Finally, combine the mass with wheat flour and baking powder. In a separate bowl, beat the proteins into stiff foam and gently add them to the mass.
Pour the dough into a cake tin with a diameter of 24 centimeters. On top we put one layer of strawberries whole or cut lengthwise. We bake in an oven preheated to 175 degrees Celsius for about 35 minutes.
It’s best to check if the dough is ready with a stick, when it cools down, sprinkle with powdered sugar.
10.5. Mini tiramisu with strawberries
Ingredients for 10 servings:
- 4 yolks,
- 350 ml strong coffee,
- 25 ml amaretto liqueur (optional),
- 100 g icing sugar,
- 500 g mascarpone cheese,
- 300 g round biscuits,
- approx. 3 tablespoons of natural cocoa,
- approx. 500 g strawberries.
Separate yolks from proteins, brew coffee and set aside to cool. Mix it with liqueur and 2 tablespoons powdered sugar. Beat the yolks with the remaining powdered sugar for a fluffy cream, it should take about 7-9 minutes.
We gradually add 3 tablespoons of mascarpone, constantly mixing. Then we put 1/3 cream into small glasses, put a layer of biscuits soaked in coffee. Sprinkle them with a little cocoa on the top.
We put the next part of the cream, sliced ??strawberries and the rest of the mass. Place the dishes in the fridge for a minimum of three hours. Before serving, decorate with cocoa and strawberries.
10.6. Strawberry smoothie with oatmeal
- half a cup of oat flakes,
- 1 small banana,
- 1 cup strawberries,
- 1 tablespoon honey or maple syrup,
- 150 g Greek yogurt,
- 150 ml of any milk.
Pour oatmeal into a blender, add milk, yogurt, add peeled banana and strawberries without stalks. We add honey and mix until smooth.
10.7. Strawberry milkshake
- 250 g strawberries,
- 200 ml cold milk,
- 100 g vanilla ice cream,
- whipped cream,
- a pinch of brown sugar,
- half a strawberry.
Wash the strawberries and remove the stalks. We mix them with milk and ice cream. Pour into a tall glass, add whipped cream, half a strawberry and sprinkle with brown sugar. Instead of ice cream, you can use a tablespoon of maple syrup and a teaspoon of powdered sugar.
10.8. Rolled rolls with strawberries
Ingredients for the dough:
- 250 ml warm milk,
- 7 g instant yeast or 30 g fresh yeast,
- 500 g wheat flour,
- 50 g sugar,
- pinch of salt,
- 1 egg,
- 2 yolks,
- 70 g soft butter,
- for lubrication: 1 egg + 2 tablespoons of milk.
Ingredients for the filling:
- 300 g strawberries,
- 4 tablespoons of sugar,
- half lemon zest,
- 1 teaspoon potato flour.
Ingredients for lemon frosting:
- half lemon juice,
- about 2/3 cup powdered sugar.
Pour yeast into warm milk, mix and leave to stand for a few minutes. Sift flour into a bowl, add sugar and salt. We mix, make a cavity in the middle and pour milk and yeast into it.
We begin to knead the dough and add egg and yolks to it. After a few minutes, add butter and knead for about ten minutes. Cover with foil and let stand for an hour and a half to rise.
At this time, we wash strawberries, cut and bring to a boil in a pot. We add sugar, lemon zest and keep on fire for a few minutes. Finally, pour some juice and mix it with potato flour. We pour it into strawberries and bring to a boil. Then remove from heat and cool.
We put the dough on the board and knead for a while. We divide them into two equal parts, roll out each into a 30 x 30 centimeter cake and spread with strawberry filling. Roll the dough into a roll and divide each into 12 slices with a thickness of 2 centimeters.
Put the dough on a board or countertop and knead for a while to get rid of air bubbles. Divide the dough into 2 parts and roll out each into a 30 x 30 cm cake. Dough pancakes successively spread with strawberry filling.
We wrap the dough in rolls and divide each crosswise into 12 slices about 2 cm thick. We arrange them on a metal plate with spaces. Let them stand for about 45 minutes to rise. Then we preheat the oven to 180 degrees, grease the buns with milk and egg, and then bake until golden for about 20-25 minutes.
We bring the lemon juice to a boil, remove from heat and gradually add powdered sugar to it, stirring constantly. Then pour it on the cooled rolls.
10.9. Grilled chicken with strawberries
Ingredients for 2 servings:
- 300 g chicken fillets,
- salt and pepper,
- 2 teaspoons of chili flakes or half a teaspoon of hot pepper powder,
- 1 teaspoon sweet pepper powder,
- 1 tablespoon of rosemary leaves,
- 2 tablespoons of olive oil,
- 1 tablespoon of lime juice,
- a teaspoon of grated lime peel,
- a glass of chopped strawberries,
- feta cheese,
- 5 tablespoons of balsamic vinegar,
- 2 tablespoons honey or agave syrup,
- 2 teaspoons of lime juice,
- 1.5 tablespoons of olive oil,
- salt and pepper.
Wash the chicken, dry with a paper towel, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and then put in a deep plate. In a small bowl, combine chili, pepper, rosemary, olive oil, juice and zest of lime. Rub the fillets with marinade and put in the fridge for about an hour.
Pour balsamic vinegar, honey, lime juice, olive oil, salt and pepper into a separate bowl. We add strawberries and mix. Warm up the grill pan and put chicken on it. Fry for about four minutes on one side.
Then reduce the fire to a minimum and cover the chicken with aluminum foil for about 2-3 minutes. Then pour the fillets with strawberry sauce and set aside from heat. Put a portion of meat on a plate, serve with rocket salad and feta cheese.
10.10. Chocolate omelette with strawberries
Ingredients for 1 serving:
- 2 eggs,
- 2 tablespoons of wheat flour,
- 1/2 tablespoon of cocoa,
- 1/2 teaspoon vanilla sugar,
- 2 cubes of dark chocolate,
- a little butter to grease the pan,
- a tablespoon of powdered sugar for sprinkling,
- 200 g fresh strawberries.
We combine sifted flour with cocoa and vanilla sugar. Proteins are separated from yolks. Proteins beat with a pinch of salt to a stiff foam, then reduce the mixer speed to medium and gradually add mixed yolks.
We mix at minimum speed and gradually add the flour along with the additions. Finally, pour in finely chopped chocolate. We heat a frying pan with a diameter of 18-20 centimeters. We dissolve a little butter on it and grease it with the bottom and sides of the dish.
We pour the mass, reduce the heat and fry uncovered for about 4 minutes on one side. We put on a plate and serve with whipped cream, vanilla sugar and strawberries.
10.11. Dumplings with strawberries
Ingredients for about 40 pieces:
- 300 g wheat flour,
- pinch of salt,
- 125 ml boiling water,
- 1 egg,
- 20 g butter,
- 200 g strawberries,
- 200 g Greek yogurt or 12% or 18% cream,
- powdered sugar.Preparation:
Pour the flour and salt into the bowl. We put butter in boiling water and wait until it dissolves. Gradually pour the liquid into the flour, while stirring.
We add a beaten egg and knead a uniform dough. We put them on a floured top and knead for about 7 minutes. Then we wrap it in foil and leave it for half an hour. Later, divide the dough into four equal parts and roll out each into a thin 2-3 mm cake.
Strawberries cut into quarters, they can be additionally mixed with a tablespoon of potato flour. We cut the circles in the dough with a glass, stretch them gently in the fingers, and put strawberries in the middle.
Fold the wheel in half and carefully connect the edges together. Place the ready dumplings on the board or on the counter. In a large pot, bring the water to a boil and put in about 15 dumplings.
When the water boils again, reduce the heat and cook for about 3 minutes after rising to the surface of the water. We fish them out with a slotted spoon and place them on plates. Serve with sweetened cream or Greek yogurt.
11. Calories and nutritional values ??of strawberries
|Calories and nutritional values||Content||Content|
|in 100 g||in 152 g (1 glass, halves)|
|Energy value||32.0 kcal||48.6 kcal|
|Protein||0.67 g||1.02 g|
|carbohydrates||7.68 g||11.67 g|
|Sugar||4.89 g||7.43 g|
|roughage||2.00 g||3.04 g|
|Fat||0.30 g||0.46 g|
|Saturated fat||0.02 g||0.02 g|
|Monounsaturated fats||0.04 g||0.07 g|
|Polyunsaturated fats||0.16 g||0.24 g|
|cholesterol||0 mg||0 mg|
|Vitamin C||58.8 mg||89.4 mg|
|Folate equivalent||24.0 µg||36.5 µg|
|Vitamin B1 – Thiamine||0.02 mg||0.04 mg|
|Vitamin B2 – Riboflavin||0.02 mg||0.03 mg|
|Vitamin B3 – vitamin PP – niacin||0.39 mg||0.59 mg|
|Vitamin B5 – pantothenic acid||0.13 mg||0.19 mg|
|Vitamin B6 – pyridoxine||0.05 mg||0.07 mg|
|Vitamin B9 – folic acid||24.0 µg||36.5 µg|
|Vitamin B4 – choline||5.70 mg||8.66 mg|
|Vitamin B12 – Cobalamin||0 µg||0 µg|
|Vitamin A||12.00 iu||18.24 iu|
|Vitamin A||1.00 µg RAE||1.52 µg RAE|
|retinol||0 µg||0 µg|
|Alpha carotene||0 µg||0 µg|
|Beta carotene||7.00 µg||10.64 µg|
|Beta-cryptoxanthin||0 µg||0 µg|
|lycopene||0 µg||0 µg|
|Lutein + Zeaxanthin||26.0 µg||39.5 µg|
|Vitamin E||0.29 mg||0.44 mg|
|Vitamin D||0 µg||0 µg|
|Vitamin D||0 and u||0 and u|
|Vitamin K||2.20 µg||3.34 µg|
|Calcium||16.00 mg||24.3 mg|
|Iron||0.41 mg||0.62 mg|
|Magnesium||13.00 mg||19.76 mg|
|Phosphorus||24.0 mg||36.5 mg|
|Potassium||153 mg||233 mg|
|Sodium||1.00 mg||1.52 mg|
|Zinc||0.14 mg||0.21 mg|
|Copper||0.05 mg||0.07 mg|
|Manganese||0.39 mg||0.59 mg|
|Selenium||0.40 µg||0.61 µg|
|Water||91.0 g||138 g|